இந்தியாவின் ஜம்மு-காஷ்மீர் இமயச் சரிவில் உலகிலே உயர்ந்த இரும்பு வளைவு இரயில் பாலம்

சி. ஜெயபாரதன் B.E.(Hons) P.Eng (Nuclear), கனடா

Iron Arch Railway Bridge over Chenab River in North India Jammu & Kashmir

The world’s tallest iron arch is the Indian Railway Bridge, Jammu & Kashmir. https://youtu.be/3sgcG40gYIM

On 7th November, 2017, the main arch of the rail bridge on river Chenab in Jammu and Kashmir which is being called the of world`s tallest rail bridge has been launched by Indian Railways.

இந்தியாவின் ஜம்மு-காஷ்மீர்  இமயச் சரிவில் உலகிலே உயர்ந்த இரும்பு வளைவு  இரயில் பாலம்.

காஷ்மீர் முதல் கன்னியாகுமரி வரை ரயில் பாதைகள் இணைப்புத் திட்டத்தின் கீழ் 2004 ஆண்டில் இந்திய இமயச் சரிவில், செனாப் ஆற்றைக் கடக்க மாபெரும் இரும்பு வளைவு ரயில் பாலம் ஒன்றைக் கட்ட, இந்தியா திட்டமிட்டது.  நீண்ட பாலம் இணைக்கும் பக்கால் & கௌரி பகுதிகள் ஜம்மு காஷ்மீரில் உள்ளன. இரும்பு காங்கிரீட் வளைவுப் பாலம் செனாப் நதிக்கு மேல் 1180 அடி [360 மீடர்] உயரத்தில் முதன்மையாக உலகத்திலே உயர்ந்த ஒரு ரயில் பாலமாக கட்டப்பட்டு உள்ளது. 2004ஆம்  ஆண்டில் திட்டம் சிந்தையில் உருவாகி, 2017ஆம் ஆண்டில் செனாப் நதிப் பாலத்தின் அடித்தளப் பீடம் கட்டி முடிக்கப்பட்டது.   2021ஆம் ஆண்டில்தான்  இருபுறத்துப் பெரும் வளையங்களின் மையத் துண்டு இணைக்கப்பட்டது. 1486 கோடி ரூபாய்ச் செலவில் கட்டப்பட்ட இந்தப் பெரிய பாலம், இந்திய உள்கட்டமைப்பின் உன்னதமாகக் [Infrastructure Marvel] கருதப்படுகிறது.

செனாப் நதிப் பால இடைத் தூரம் ; 4050 அடி [1315 மீடர்].  ஆக மொத்தம்  17 இடைவெளித் தூண்கள் கொண்டது.  இந்த பாலம் குறைந்தது 120 வருடம் நீடிக்கும் என்று திட்டமிடப்பட்டது.  இமாலயப் பூகம்பப் [Seismic Zone  IV ]  பகுதி 4 இல் 8 ரிக்டர் ஆற்றல் தாங்கும் வலிமை உள்ளது.  புயலடிப்பு வேகம் 150 mph   [260 kmph ] எதிர்கொள்ளும் நிலைப்புத் திறன். பாலத்தில்  போகும் ரயில் 100 kmph  [60 mph]  வேகத்தில் கடக்க டிசைன் செய்யப்பட்டது.

Construction

The Chenab Rail Bridge was originally intended to be completed in December 2009. However, in September 2008, the project was halted due to fears over the bridge’s stability and safety. Work on the bridge restarted in 2010, with the plan to complete it in 2015.

The design and construction was awarded to Afcons Infrastructure, a part of the Shapoorji Pallonji Group, the third-largest construction group in India, with the help of IISc Bangalore. Major construction decisions were taken by Konkan Railway Corporation. The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) helped in the design of the bridge, making it blast-proof using special steel.

The erection scheme for the bridge is a project in itself. Two pylons (about 130 m and 100 m high) were erected on either side of the river, and two auxiliary self-propelled cable cranes (capacity of 20 tonnes each) were used to tow temporary auxiliary ropes across these pylons. The ropes were used to support the partly finished arch parts. After arch completion, the trusses will be added, finally the girder will be constructed as a horizontal sliding type platform.

Project status

  • Jul 2017: Construction work resumed on the bridge.
  • Nov 2017: The work bridge’s arch is was expected to be completed By May 2019.
  • Nov 2018: The bridge is now under active construction.
  • Dec 2018: The project was expected to be completed by the end of 2019, but at this time, it seems unlikely.
  • Aug 2019: 80% of construction work has been completed on the bridge, and is expected to be opened in mid-2020.
  • Nov 2019: 83% work has been completed on the bridge, and is now expected to be opened in March 2021.
  • Jan 2020: It is now expected to be opened in December 2021.
  • April 2021: Work on both the ends of the bridge’s arch is finally completed. It is now expected to be opened in 2022.
  • June 2022: About 90% of construction work has been completed, and is now confirmed to make the bridge operational by December 2022.

Maintenance

Regular painting of large bridges is an intimidating task; hence, a painting scheme was developed, having renewal of over 15 years, compared to approx. 5 to 7 years in most other Indian railway bridges.

Interesting Facts about the Chenab Railway Bridge
Given below are some interesting facts on the Chenab Railway Bridge.

The total cost estimated of the Chenab rail bridge is Rs 1,486 crores.
The Chenab bridge covers a total length of 1,315 metres.
There are 17 spans in total over the Chenab Rail Bridge.
The life of the Chenab Railway bridge is 120 years.
Trains are allowed to pass across the Chenab bridge at a maximum speed of 100 kilometres/hour.
The highest bridge in India has been designed by consulting DRDO (Defence Research and Development Organisation).
The Chenab Bridge is designed to withstand wind speed up to 266 kilometres/hour.
It is designed to bear earthquakes of up to 8 magnitudes.
For joining the different parts of the bridge, approximately 584km (Jammu to New Delhi) of welding has been done.
For the first time, the Indian Railways have launched the curved viaduct portion by using the method of End-launching.
Warning and health monitoring systems have been extensively planned through state-of-art instrumentation.
Srinagar’s cable crane pylon stands at the height of 127 metres, making it higher than Delhi’s Qutub Minar (72 metres).
For testing the welds, a phased array ultrasonic machine has been used by the Indian Railways for the first time.
Features of the Arch of the Chenab Bridge
Here are some of the features of the spectacular arch of the Chenab River Railway Bridge.

The Chenab River bridge is 35m higher than the world-famous Eiffel Tower in Paris.
The arch is made by using boxes of steel. The boxes will be stuffed with concrete to improve stability.
The arch of the Chenab River bridge weighs 10,619MT.
A first in the Indian Railways history, the members of the arch were erected by using overhead cable cranes.
The construction of the Chenab River Rail Bridge involved the usage of 28,660 Meta Tons of steel.
For structural detailing of the Chenab River bridge, Tekla software has been used.
List of Contractors Involved in the Chenab River Project
Below is the list of the contractors who were actively involved with the Chenab River Project.

Department Name of Project Contractor
Foundation Protection Designer Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bangalore
Slope Stability Analysis Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi
Executing Agency Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd.
Seismic Analysis Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Delhi & Roorkee
Proof Consultant for Foundation and Foundation Protection M/s COWI, UK
Arch Designer M/s Leonhart, Andra and Partners (Germany)
Viaduct and Foundations Designer M/s WSP (Finland)
Executing Agency Konkan Railway Corporation Ltd.
Challenges Faced while constructing the Chenab Railway Bridge
Here are the challenges faced while constructing the Chenab Railway Bridge.

The rugged and mountainous Himalayan terrain posed a threat to the construction of the Chenab Rail Bridge. 900 metres tall cable cranes were installed on both sides of the Chenab gorge to build the arch of the bridge.

At such a high altitude, the bridge construction was festered with winds up to 50-60 kmph. The construction work was also hampered because of frequent and unprecedented rains, thunderstorms, landslides and snowfall.

This is why assembling the arch showcased the great work projection of the engineering skill.
Work on the arch construction started back in 2005. It was only finally linked after 16 years in March 2021.

Analysis for tunnel construction and earthquake also posed a challenge due to the persisting winds and the treacherous terrain.

Never Seen before view from Crown of Arch of Chenab Bridge

INFORMATION

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